Active Optical Tuning of Azopolymeric Whispering Gallery Mode Microresonators for Filter Applications


Gabriel H. A. Jorge, Filipe A. Couto, Juliana M. P. Almeida, Victor A. S. Marques, Marcelo B. Andrade, and Cleber R. Mendonça. 2024. “Active Optical Tuning of Azopolymeric Whispering Gallery Mode Microresonators for Filter Applications.” Photonics, 11, 2.


Light confinement provided by whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators is especially useful for integrated photonic circuits. In particular, the tunability of such devices has gained increased attention for active filtering and lasering applications. Traditional lithographic approaches for fabricating such devices, especially Si-based ones, often restrict the device’s tuning due to the material’s inherent properties. Two-photon polymerization (2PP) has emerged as an alternative fabrication technique of sub-diffraction resolution 3D structures, in which compounds can be incorporated to further expand their applications, such as enabling active devices. Here, we exploited the advantageous characteristics of polymer-based devices and produced, via 2PP, acrylic-based WGM hollow microcylinders incorporated with the azoaromatic chromophore Disperse Red 13 (DR13). Within telecommunication range, we demonstrated the tuning of the microresonator’s modes by external irradiation within the dye’s absorption peak (at 514 nm), actively inducing a blueshift at a rate of 1.2 nm/(Wcm−2). Its thermo-optical properties were also investigated through direct heating, and the compatibility of both natural phenomena was also confirmed by finite element simulations. Such results further expand the applicability of polymeric microresonators in optical and photonic devices since optically active filtering was exhibited.