The influence of graphene and retinoic acid (RA) – a π-conjugated organic semiconductor – interface on their hybrid system is investigated. The physical properties of the interface are assessed via scanning probe microscopy, optical spectroscopy (photoluminescence and Raman) and ab initio calculations. The graphene/RA interaction induces the formation of a well-organized π-conjugated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at the interface. Such structural organization leads to the high optical emission efficiency of the RA SAM, even at room temperature. Additionally, photo-assisted electrical force microscopy, photo-assisted scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicate a RA-induced graphene doping and photo-charge generation. Finally, the optical excitation of the RA monolayer generates surface potential changes on the hybrid system. In summary, interface-induced organized structures atop 2D materials may have an important impact on both design and operation of π-conjugated nanomaterial-based hybrid systems.
A cosmological extension of the Eisenhart–Duval metric is constructed by incorporating a cosmic scale factor and the energy-momentum tensor into the scheme. The dynamics of the spacetime is governed by the Ermakov–Milne–Pinney equation. Killing isometries include spatial translations and rotations, Newton–Hooke boosts and translation in the null direction. Geodesic motion in Ermakov–Milne–Pinney cosmoi is analyzed. The derivation of the Ermakov–Lewis invariant, the Friedmann equations and the Dmitriev–Zel'dovich equations within the Eisenhart–Duval framework is presented.
We show the presence of non-relativistic Lévy-Leblond fermions in flat three- and four-layers graphene with AB stacking, extending the results obtained in Cariglia et al. 2017 for bilayer graphene. When the layer is curved we obtain a set of equations for Galilean fermions that are a variation of those of Lévy-Leblond with a well defined combination of pseudospin, and that admit Lévy-Leblond spinors as solutions in an approriate limit. The local energy of such Galilean fermions is sensitive to the intrinsic curvature of the surface. We discuss the relationship between two-dimensional pseudospin, labelling layer degrees of freedom, and the different energy bands. For Lévy-Leblond fermions, an interpretation is given in terms of massless fermions in an effective 4D spacetime, and in this case the pseudospin is related to four dimensional chirality. A non-zero energy band gap between conduction and valence electronic bands is obtained for surfaces with positive curvature.
Abstract In this work, we demonstrate the nanofabrication of monolayer MoS2 islands using local anodic oxidation of few-layer and bulk MoS2 flakes. The nanofabricated islands present true monolayer Raman signal and photoluminescence intensity up to two orders of magnitude larger than that of a pristine monolayer. This technique is robust enough to result in monolayer islands without the need of
meticulously fine-tuning the oxidation process, thus providing a fast and reliable way of creating monolayer regions with enhanced optical properties and with controllable size, shape, and position.
Abstract Isoxazoles have well established biological activities but, have been underexplored as synthetic intermediates for applications in materials science. The aims of this work are to synthesis a novel isoxazole and analyze its structural and photophysical properties for application in electronic organic materials. The novel bis (phenylisoxazolyl) benzene compound was synthesized in four steps and characterized by NMR, high resolution mass spectrometry, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, \DFT\ and \TDDFT\ calculations. The molecule presented optical absorption in the ultraviolet region (from 290 nm to 330 nm), with maximum absorption length centered at 306 nm. The molar extinction coefficients (ε), fluorescence emission spectra and quantum efficiencies in chloroform and dimethylformamide solution were determined. Cyclic voltammetry analysis was carried out for estimating the \HOMO\ energy level and these properties make it desirable material for photovoltaic device applications. Finally, the excited-state properties of present compound were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT).
In the present work, we use atomic force microscopy nanomanipulation of 2D-material standing folds to investigate their mechanical deformation. Using graphene, h-BN and talc nanoscale wrinkles as testbeds, universal force–strain pathways are clearly uncovered and well-accounted for by an analytical model. Such universality further enables the investigation of each fold bending stiffness κ as a function of its characteristic height h 0 . We observe a more than tenfold increase of κ as h 0 increases in the 10–100 nm range, with power-law behaviors of κ versus h 0 with exponents larger than unity for the three materials. This implies anomalous scaling of the mechanical responses of nano-objects made from these materials.
Research in hybrid electronics has included advances in materials, devices and architectures. However, in practice, controversy still exists on some details which limit hybrid materials to high-performance applications, such as processing–structure–design–property relations. This paper describes a practical approach to enhancing the sensing performance of a prototype ammonia gas sensor based on electrical conductivity changes, percolation theory and current limitation to a semiconducting polymer-metal oxide medium. This device is based on fully-gravure printed polyaniline/indium - tin oxide nanocomposites, Pani100−xITOx [0 ≤ x≤ 100% (wt/wt)], layers on a freestanding high-density polyethylene substrate. We find that the electrical current of the device decreases and tends to saturate as the gas concentration increases, and the value of this electrical current limit (IL) depends on x: the higher the value of x, the smaller the IL, when the current that flows through the electronic device was dominated by the ITO-nanoparticle filled PAni, which increase the concentration of hopping carriers and contribute to the desired electrical response of a heterogeneous gas sensor. In this regime, we find a good linear relationship between x and ammonia concentration. These findings suggest new directions for future research on the development and investigation of organic-inorganic devices in which the electrical current variation is desired for enhanced sensitivity and stability of hybrid sensors.
Conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PANi) have been widely investigated as ammonia gas sensors due to their intrinsic redox states, good environmental stability, and suitability for low-cost and variable changing in electrical conductivity when exposed to acid and basic gases. In this paper we used both a hybrid PANi derivative, poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA)-vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) film, and new ac electrical measurement strategies to increase the ammonia gas sensor performance. Complex impedance measurements of POMA/V2O5 hybrid film showed linearity in response and a high sensitivity to ammonia in the 0–20 ppm range in both real (around 800%) and imaginary (around 3000%) components, which indicated that the film is a good candidate to use as an ammonia sensing material. FTIR spectra presented typical V2O5 and POMA bands and also presented a shifting to higher wave numbers in bands referring to the vanadyl group and primary amines, which indicated the presence of hydrogen bonds between oxide and polymer. Finally, the Cole–Cole theoretical model with an interface effect provided a good fit for the experimental results from electrical ac measurements.
Ultrasensitive strain sensors have significant practical application in human-motion detection. However, there is still a challenge for developing strain sensors that are capable of detecting high strain and a high gauge factor (GF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a semiconducting polymer and AC measurements are able to improve the GF of stretchable sensors. We employed complex impedance spectroscopy measurements to adjust the optimal operating frequency and the impedance component for improving the device performance of a polyaniline film on a flexible poly(vinyl chloride):diisononyl phthalate sub-strate. In the DC regime, the sensor revealed linearity and GF ∼18 at 46% strain. oreover, the frequency of 100 Hz corresponds to the ideal work re- gion to operate the device that unifies sensitivity and linearity, as well as to directly correlate GF and Z∗(100) data. The most surprising correlation is with GF from Z”(100), i.e. GF”(100), which is about 9 times higher than GF (DC regime) at 46% strain. The Cole-Davidson approach is developed, in which Z’(f) and Z”(f) are calculated as functions of tensile stress. This model provides the correlation between GF”(100) and the electrical resistance and capacitance of the device, as well as the charge-carrier hopping distance dependence on the tensile stress.
This paper presents a new approach for the analysis of AC conductivity, = + , in disordered solids which brings together the quasi-universal frequency-dependent conductivity and the idea of a Gaussian distributions of probable activation energy barriers for hopping carriers. An explicit expression for AC conductivity was obtained using a complex dielectric response function and a continuous time random walk treatment applied to a lattice obeying the Kubo’s fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This expression provides an insight into the universality of the form and (k is the dielectric constant), as well into the effect of the Gaussian disorder on exponent s. We discuss the similarities and differences with the Random Free Energy Barrier model equivalent to the long-used box model, and it brings support to an extending expression proposed by J C Dyre and one of the authors. The applicability of the model to experimental observations on poly[(2-methoxy-5-hexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] reveals the dielectric constant, mean energy and variance of the Gaussian distribution for hopping carriers in this disordered conjugated polymer.